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Baccaurea dulcis - Buah Rambai


Baccaurea dulcis

In rejang land known as Buak Rambai or buak ketupak, or buah rambai in bahasa :). This is tropical fruit indigenous especially from sumatra Island. For today Baccaurea dulcis still can find in Rejang land if the season of fruit coming.

Baccaurea dulcis (Jack) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 460; Boerl., Handl. Fl. Ned. Ind. 3, 1 (1900) 281; Koord., Exkurs. Fl. Java 2 (1912) 481; K.Heyne, Nutt. Pl. Ned. Ind. 3 (1917) 73; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 51; S.Moore, J. Bot. Br. 63 (1925) 98; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 454; Soejarto, Bot. Mus. Leafl. (1965) 82; Meijer, Bot. News Bull. Forest Dept., Sabah 7 (1967) 37; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 261; Haegens, Blumea Suppl. (2000) 112, Map 3.10.

Sinonim :

Pierardia dulcis Jack, Trans. Linn. Soc. 14 (1823) 120; Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 5 (1846) 367; Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2, 1 (1859) 358; Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste bijv. (1861) 441; Baill., Adansonia 3 (1863) 140. — Type: Jack s.n. (holo K), Sumatra, male flowering specimen.

Baccaurea suvrae Chakrab. & M.Gangop., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18 (1994) 423. — Type: Forbes 3017 (holo CAL; iso L), Sumatra, Palembang, R. Rawas, Soeroelangoen.

Tree 3–30 m high, dbh 4–30 cm, buttresses absent; branchlets (sub)glabrous, hollow; young shoots (pale) red-brown to (pale) brown to grey when dry, Terminalia branching pattern weakly developed. Indumentum of simple hairs. Bark whitish-brown when fresh, grey when dry, c. 1 mm thick, rough; inner bark white, 2–3 mm thick. Leaves: petiole 8–68 mm long, glabrous to subglabrous, brown to red-brown when dry, raised glands usually present; stipules 6–15 by 2.5–6 mm, glabrous outside, but often densely hairy at base, glabrous to densely hairy at midrib, inside glabrous, margin not ciliate, not hyaline; lamina obovate, 7.8–30 by 3.7–11.6 cm, l/w ratio 1.5–3.3, papery to slightly leathery; base acute to attenuate; apex obtuse to acuminate, up to 11 mm long; upper surface glabrous, raised glands usually present, usually granulate, brown to reddish to grey to green when dry; lower surface glabrous, often subglabrous at midrib, discoid glands absent, brown to reddish to grey to green when dry; secondary veins 5–12 per side, closed at margin; nervation reticulate. Staminate inflorescences axillary to just below the leaves, solitary to few clustered together, 0.3–10 cm long, 0.5–1 mm thick, (glabrous to) subglabrous to densely hairy, many-flowered, flowers scattered along inflorescence; bracts 1 per branchlet, 1–2 mm long, (sub)glabrous outside, gla­brous inside, margin ciliate, (not) hyaline; bracteoles 0–2, up to 0.3 mm long, sparsely hairy outside, glabrous inside; branchlets absent to cylindrical, 0–3 mm long, densely hairy, (2- or) 3-flowered. Staminate flowers 2–4.5 mm diam.; pedicel 1–3.8 mm long, upper part 0.5–1.5 mm long, densely hairy; sepals 4, ovate, 1.2–3.5 by 0.5–1.6 mm, apex (slightly) recurved, outside and inside densely hairy; staminodes 6–8; stamens 6–8, 0.4–0.9 mm long, glabrous; filaments 0.4–0.7 mm long, usually geniculate; anthers 0.1–0.15 by 0.15–0.2 by c. 0.1 mm; disc absent; pistillode absent to obtriangular, up to 1 mm high, densely hairy, hollow. Pistillate inflorescences axillary to ramiflorous (to cauline), solitary to few-clustered together, 2.5–12 cm long, 1–2.5 mm thick, (sub)glabrous, 8–30-flowered; pedicel, 2.5–10 mm long, upper part 0.3–4.2 mm, subglabrous to densely hairy; bracts inserted on rachis and pedicel, 3 per branchlet, (sub)glabrous outside, glabrous inside, ciliate. Pistillate flowers 5–10 mm diam., yel­low; sepals 4 or 5, elliptic, 3–11 by 1.7–4.5 mm, sparsely to densely hairy outside, densely hairy inside, caducous, whitish when dry; ovary globose, 1.5–2.7 by 1.5–2.7 mm, 3-locular, (sub)glabrous; style absent; stigmas 0.4–0.8 mm long, not cleft to 90%, usually persistent; lobes 0.2–0.8 by 0.3–1 mm, glabrous and ruminate above and below. Fruits globose, 1–3-seeded berries, 24–35 by 11–26 by 11–26 mm when dry, raised glands present, ruminate when dry, (sub)glabrous outside, glabrous inside, yellow; pericarp 1.5–11 mm thick; column 21–24 mm long, straight; pedicel 8–17.5 mm long, upper part c. 1 mm long. Seeds globose to ellipsoid, laterally flattened, (10.6–)12.5–18 by (9–)10–12.5 by 3–5 mm; arillode purple; cotyledons 7–10.5 by 5.5–11.5 by c. 0.1 mm; radicle 1.5–2 mm long; endosperm c. 1 mm thick.

Distribution — Sumatra, W Java.

Habitat & Ecology
— Primary rain forest, and cultivated. Altitude: 90–700 m. Flowering: June, Aug., Oct. Fruiting: May, June, Sept., Nov., Dec.

— Fruits sweet to sour.

Vernacular names
— Sumatra: Kapunduang (Minang); cupak, kaloe, ketoepa, menteng negri, toepa.
— Simeuluë Island: Pranggo.


Rejang Land Pal

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