weblogUpdates.ping Taneak Jang, Rejang Land, Tanah Rejang http://rejang-lebong.blogspot.com Taneak Jang, Rejang land, Tanah Rejang: Selamatkan Maskot Satwa Propinsi Bengkulu!!!

Selamatkan Maskot Satwa Propinsi Bengkulu!!!

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Meski Beruang ini masuk maskot Satwa Propinsi Bengkulu tapi Satwa ini tidak Populer di Masyarakat Bengkulu, bahkan banyak penduduk di Propinsi ini tidak mengetahui kalau satwa ini jadi maskot propinsinya, populasinya sendiri sangat mengkhawatirkan. Petikan Artikel dari www.pili.or.id sangat banyak mencatat dan menambah panjang daftar betapa buruknya Konservasi alam di Bengkulu.

Beruang Madu (Helarctos malayanus) merupakan Maskot satwa propinsi Bengkulu, juga mengalami penuruan populasi dialam,di karenakan perdagnan beruang madu hidup dan bagian-bagian tubuhnya masih banyak terjadi. Hasil investigasi ProFauna tahun 2001 menujukan bahwa 64,5 % toko obat tradisional di Indonesia menjual obat yang mengadung empedu beruang, selain empedu bagian tubuh lainya yang sering dijual adalah cakar, taring, dan telapak tangan untuk sup. Beruang madu adalah satwa dilkindungi semestinya perdagangan bagian tubuhnya juga dlarang.namun hal ini masih terjadi di sejumlah kota seperti, Jakarta, Surabaya, medan,
bengkulu, pontianak, lampung. Obat-obat yang mengadung empedu beruang sebagian besar diimpor dari cina dan dijual dengan harga bervariasi antar Rp.70.000-
Rp. 300.000.

Meski Bengkulu memiliki kawasan konservasi yang luas, namun perlindungan terhadap jenis satwa liar sangat buruk. Para pemburu harimau, badak dan beruang
biasanya menggunakan kedok sebagai pemburu babi hutan. Perdagangan Penyu juga terus terjadi di perbatasan Sumbar – Bengkulu. Meski seluruh jenis penyu laut dan bagian - bagiannya telah dilindungi namun perdagangan telur penyu masih terjadi dengan bebas dan tidak terkendali.

Daftar sebagian dari catatan hitam yang panjang dari propinsi Bengkulu untuk perlindungan satwa dan flora bisa di baca di : http://www.pili.or.id/incl_indo_read_detail.php?id=189

Beruang ini masuk salah satu hewan di kawasan Konservasi Taman Nasional Kerinci Seblat (TNKS) yang sebagian wilayahnya berada di Tanah Rejang






Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Caniformia
Family: Ursidae
Genus: Helarctos
Species: Helarctos malayanus




By LeeAnn Bies


Geographic Range

Helarctos malayanus ranges from the eastern Himalayas to Szechuan in China, then southward throughout Burma, parts of Indochina and the Malayan peninsula. Their range is probably greater than what is actually known. (Sanderson, 1972; Ward and Kynaston, 1995)




Habitat

Sun bears are found in dense lowland tropical forests. They can commonly be found climbing in trees. (Sanderson, 1972)





Physical Description

Mass
27 to 65 kg
(59.4 to 143 lbs)


Length
1.20 to 1.50 m
(3.94 to 4.92 ft)


Sun bears are the smallest bears in the family Ursidae. They stand 70 cm at the shoulder and are 1.2 to 1.5 m from head to tail. The tail itself is 3 to 7 cm. Males are larger than the females but only by 10 to 20%. They have short, wide, flat heads with small round ears. Their fur is rather coarse but appears sleek. This coat is entirely black except for a "U" shaped patch on the chest and a grey to faintly orange muzzle. The yellowish or white chest patch is highly variable, "U" shaped in some and completely absent in others. This mark may exaggerate bears' sizes during fights. The young are born with soft, shiny coats. The paws are fairly large with sickle-shaped claws and naked soles which are thought to be helpful in climbing trees. These bears have an interesting walk, with all four legs turned in while walking. (International Association for Bear Research and Management (IBA), 1999; Nowak, 1997; Sanderson, 1972; Ward and Kynaston, 1995)





Reproduction

Breeding interval
Frequency of breeding in females is unknown.

Breeding season
Breeding occurs throughout the year.

Number of offspring
1 to 3; avg. 1.50

Gestation period
95 to 240 days

Birth Mass
325 g (average) [External Source: AnAge]
(11.44 oz)


Age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
3 years (average)

Age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
3 years (average)

Little is known about mating in sun bears.

Little is known about the reproductive behavior of sun bears in the wild. Gestation period lasts about 95 days, but there is evidence of delayed implantation. Some sun bear pregnancies in a zoo in Fort Worth lasted 174 to 240 days. A sun bear at the Berlin Zoo actually gave birth two times in one year in 1961, first in April, then again in August, but this is rare. Litter size is usually around one to two but occasionally there are three. Newborns are blind, hairless, and helpless and weigh a mere 300 grams. Cubs stay with their mothers until fully grown and reach sexual maturity around three years of age. (International Association for Bear Research and Management (IBA), 1999)


Like other bear species, sun bear females invest large amounts of energy into raising their altricial young to a stage at which they are able to be independent.





Lifespan/Longevity

Extreme lifespan (captivity)
24.75 years (high)

Average lifespan (captivity)
35.90 years [Ref]

In captivity sun bears have lived up to 24 years and nine months. (Helin, 1999)




Behavior

Sun bears are active at night and are excellent and agile climbers. They sleep and sun bath in trees at heights from 2 to 7 m. This species does not go through periods of hibernation, probably because they live in tropical areas and their food sources are present year round. (Nowak, 1997; Sanderson, 1972)





Communication and Perception

Like other bear species, sun bears have a keen sense of smell. Bears tend to use their senses of smell and touch to find and manipulate food. They probably use olfactory cues to find potential mates and use some vocalizations. (Nowak, 1997)





Food Habits

Sun bears are opportunistic omnivores, with bees, termites, and earthworms comprising the main part of their diet. Fruit is also eaten when available. The former are more regular food sources than fruit and usually there is no need for H. malayanus to cover great distances in their search for food. These bears have long tongues that are helpful for obtaining insects from trees, termites from their nests, and honey from bee hives. Should the opportunity present itself, sun bears will eat small rodents, birds, and lizards along with scavenging tiger kills. In human populated areas their diet may include rubbish, livestock, and agricultural fruit such as bananas. (Ward and Kynaston, 1995)





Predation

Predation on sun bears is not reported. Because of their size they are likely to have few natural predators. Young bears may be killed by aggressive conspecifics or by tigers.





Ecosystem Roles

In certain regions, sun bears are important in seed dispersal. In a study of H. malayanus in Borneo, one sample of these bear feces was found to contain 309 seeds of a certain species of plant. They also impact the colonial insect populations that they prey on. (McConkey and Galetti, 1999)





Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

Sun bears have been known to cause damage to crops such as oil palms, coconuts, and bananas.


Ways that these animals might be a problem for humans:
crop pest.

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

The gall bladders and other body parts of sun bears are used in folk medical practices. It has been proven, though, that they have no medicinal value. People hunt them for sport and profit. They are commonly sold as pets when they are cubs, but quickly outgrow the stage when they are manageable as pets. (Sanderson, 1972)



Conservation Status

IUCN Red List: [link]:
Data Deficient.

US Federal List: [link]:
No special status.

CITES: [link]:
Appendix I.

Sun bears are one of the rarest bears. The exact number alive today is not known, but the population is steadily declining due to deforestation and hunting. Habitat destruction is causing these bears to live in smaller and more isolated patches. The land is being cleared to create coffee, rubber and oil palm plantations. Poachers are flocking to protected areas and reserves because they know there are bears there. Reserves may not even be providing sufficient habitats for these bears because their needs are not completely known. Not many conservation attempts have been done to save these bears because so little is known about them. (Servheen Christopher, March/April 1999; Ward and Kynaston, 1995)





Other Comments

One sun bear demonstrated his intelligence while in captivity. This particular bear took the rice that was given to him for food and scattered it on the ground. There were also chickens in this bear's lair and the scattered rice attracted these chickens, which the bear then captured and ate. (Nowak, 1997)

Image of: Helarctos malayanus (sun bear)

Image of: Helarctos malayanus (sun bear)

Contributors

LeeAnn Bies (author), University of Michigan.
Cynthia Sims Parr (editor), University of Michigan. Tanya Dewey (editor), Animal Diversity Web, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology.

Image of: Helarctos malayanus (sun bear)

Image of: Helarctos malayanus (sun bear)


References

Helin, S. 1999. Mammalian of China. Beijing, China: China Forestry Publishing House.

International Association for Bear Research and Management (IBA), 1999. "Sun Bear" (On-line). Accessed Nov. 27, 2001 at http://www.bearbiology.com/sudesc.html.

McConkey, K., M. Galetti. 1999. Seed dispersal by sun bear *Helarctos malayanus* in Central Borneo. Tropical Ecology, 15: 237-241.

Nowak, R. 1997. ""Walker's Mammals of the World"" (On-line). Accessed Nov. 1, 2001 at http://www.press.jhu.edu/books/walkers_mammals_of_the_world/special.html.

Sanderson, I. 1972. Living Mammals of the World. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company.

Servheen Christopher, March/April 1999. "Bear COnservation Around the World" (On-line). Accessed Nov. 27, 2001 at http://www.fonz.org/zoogoer/zg1999/28%282%29bearconserve.htm.

Image of: Helarctos malayanus (sun bear)

Ward, P., S. Kynaston. 1995. Bears of the World. London: Blanford.




Sun Bear at the MiamiMetro Zoo
http://flickr.com/photos/ucumari/140318520/in/set-72157594220710793/
http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Helarctos_malayanus.html

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