weblogUpdates.ping Taneak Jang, Rejang Land, Tanah Rejang http://rejang-lebong.blogspot.com Taneak Jang, Rejang land, Tanah Rejang: The Sultanate of Palembang Darussalam

The Sultanate of Palembang Darussalam

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(Admin : Based on History, a few part of Rejang Land especially Kepahiang Regency have ever under Palembang Sultanate territories period)

Category:History
Genre: Palembang
Author:www.melayuonline.com
1. The History

The founding of Palembang Darussalam Sultanate could not be separated from the declination of Crivijaya Kingdom in the 12th century A.D. The Crivijaya Kingdom was devastated by the invasion of Majapahit Kingdom. When Crivijaya Kingdom was already in decline as trade center, the new town established with Chinese spelling Palinfong (now is well-known as Palembang city). After Crivijaya Kingdom devastation, this town was known as commercial city with various trades and economic activities, and acknowledged as Ku-kang (Chinese language) or old harbor. The city of Palembang became an important international port which had been visited by Chinese for trading. At that time, this city had turned into the Chinese enclave for 200 years.

When Palembang under the control of Chinese traders, Parameswara, Palembang`s prince, leaved the city in 1397 C.E. At nearly the same time, Majapahit Kingdom could not place their regent (adipati) in the city, because they had elected Liang Tau Ming as the king of Palembang. Unfortunately, under their rule, the city became a place of Chinese sea rovers which brought many criminalities.

Before Palembang Darussalam Sultanate established in the city, there was Palembang Kingdom (the origin of the sultanate). In fact, the city of Palembang was a part of Majapahit Kingdom`s districts. Therefore, this writing will describe separately the history of Palembang Kingdom and Palembang Darussalam Sultanate.

a. The History of Palembang Kingdom

Palembang Kingdom was found around the fifteenth century. Ario Damar was the founder of this kingdom. He actually was a representation of Majapahit Kingdom in Palembang Lamo (a later will be well-known as Palembang Kingdom) with the title “Adipati Ario Damar” who ruled the district from1455 to 1486 C.E. When he came to Palembang, the people of this district had converted to Islam. It was assumed that he also converted to Islam and changed his name as Ario Abdillah or Ario Dillah (in Javanese language, dillah is light).

Ario Dillah then got endowment from Prabu Kertabumi Brawijaya V. The remuneration was one of his concubines who converted to Islam, Chinese descendant, and known as Puteri Champa. When she came to Palembang, she was pregnant. A few months later, she gave birth in Ario Dillah castle (long time ago was well-known as Candi Ing Laras). Her baby was named as Raden Fatah. His father, Ario Dillah, educated him from his childhood to the adolescent with religious knowledge. The knowledge, finally, brought him to be well-known ulama in Nusantara. The son of Ario Dillah, in his marriage with Puteri Champa, was Raden Kusen. Therefore, Raden Fatah was Raden Kusen`s brother from their different fathers. After the death of Ario Dillah, the authority of Palembang Kingdom begun in decline until the end of 1486 C.E. It was occurred when Palembang under the control of Majapahit Kingdom which caused many descendants of Ario Dillah, including Raden Fatah, migrated to Demak. Therefore, in this writing will be described the survival of Palembang Kingdom after Demak`s devastation.

There was no written record mentioning when the Majapahit Kingdom had been devastated in Palembang. It was assumed that Majapahit ruined in 1478 C.E., because of the invasion of Islamic Kingdoms. At that time, Sunan Ampel appointed Raden Fatah as the ruler of Java. The capital of the kingdom then moved to Demak. In 1481 C.E., Raden Fatah founded Islamic Kingdom of Demak. This founding was helped by other kingdoms surrounding Demak, such as Jepara, Tuban, and Gresik. Demak Kingdom became trade center at the fifteenth century. Raden Fatah then got a title “Senapati Jimbun Ngabdu`r-Rahman Panembahan Palembang Sayidin Panata`Gama.” He passed away in 1518 C.E., and his son Pati-Unus or Pangeran Sabrang Lor then became de facto ruler of Demak Kingdom until 1521 C.E.

In 1521 C.E. Pangeran Sabrang Lor died, the Kingdom`s authority passed to his brother, Pangeran Trenggono, until 1546 C.E. In Demak, afterward, occurred a civil war between Pangeran Seda Ing Lepen and the son of Pangeran Trenggono (Pangeran Perwata) for battling the Kingdom`s authority. This war caused the death of Pangeran Seda Ing Lepen who was killed by Pangeran Prawata. The effects of this incident, Pangeran Prawata, together with his family had been killed by Arya Penangsang or Arya Jipang, the son of Pangeran Seda Ing Lepen. The Raden Trenggono`s son in law, Pangeran Kalinyamat from Jepara, had also been killed in this period. The war could not be stopped at the time. In 1549 C.E., Arya Penangsang was killed by Adiwijaya or Jaka Tingkir, the son in law of Pangeran Trenggono, when became the Adipati of Pajang Kingdom. In the period of Jaka Tingkir, the castle of Demak had moved to Pajang after being attacked by Pajang Kingdom. This dislocation was a sign of the end of Demak Kingdom which founded since 1481 to 1546 C.E.

When Pajang Kingdom invaded Demak, there were twenty four descendants of Pangeran Trenggono and Raden Fatah migrated to Palembang that led by Ki Gede Sedo Ing Lautan. In 1547 C.E., Ki Gede Sedo Ing Lautan became the second king of Palembang Kingdom. He ruled the kingdom until 1552 C.E. One suro (perwira) of Demak Kingdom, Ki Gede Ing Suro, who migrated with the group of Ki Gede Sedo Ing Lautan appointed as the third king of Palembang Kingdom (1552-1573). Even though they had moved to Palembang, he and his descendants still had ideological relationship with the center of the Javanese castle to the end of Mataram Kingdom.

After the death of Jaka Tingkir, the Pajang Kingdom was ruled by Arya Pangiri. Under his control, the civil-political-disobedience took place. He then attacked by massif power consisting of Pangeran Benowo (the son of Jaka Tingkir who was alienated) and Mataram`s troops that led by Panembahan Senapati or Senapati Mataram, the son of Kyai Ageng Pemanahan or Kyai Gede Mataram. At the same time, Arya Pangiri was defeated by Senapati of Mataram forcing them to displace the Pajang`s castle to Mataram in 1587 C.E. This year also was known as the founding of Mataram Kingdom. The Mataram`s princes were descendants of Raden Fatah and Raden Trenggono. The close cognation between Palembang Kingdom and Mataram Kingdom caused them to have a good relationship in this period. The close relationship was running well until Raja Amangkurat I period (fourth king of Palembang kingdom). Furthermore, both relationships were implemented by cooperation`s forms. In the end of 1677 C.E., the Palembang Kingdom had their loyality to Mataram Kingdom and counted them as the patron from the invasion of Banten Kingdom which had been running since1596 C.E.

In 1610 C.E., the Palembang Kingdom had a good relationship with VOC (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie). At the beginning, VOC did not want to make relationship with them. On the contrary, under the rule of Pangeran Sideng Kenayan, the office of VOC (Factorij)) opened in Palembang, with intermediatory of General Governor in Jakarta, Jacob Specx (1629-1632 C.E.). But, in 1659 C.E., the castle of Kuta Gawang, together with its citadel, ruined after had been attacked by VOC.




The castle`s devastation was sign of the end of Palembang Kingdom`s existence. These devastations influenced on the dislocation of the palace and civil settlements to the upstream of Rendang River and Tengkuruk River. This district then known as Beringin Janggut. The palace of Kuta Gawang, now is located on the area of PT. Pusri, Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia. From its structure can be assumed that there was an acculturation between Javanese and Malay cultures which is called as Palembang culture. After the devastation of Palembang Kingdom, a new Palembang was born with its characteristics and independence which known as Palembang Darussalam Sultanate.

b. The History of Palembang Darusalam Sultanate

In 1659 C.E., the Sultanate of Palembang Darussalam established, with its characteristics differed from Palembang Kingdom which had been established before. The founder of this sultanate was Sultan Jamaluddin who known as Sultan Ratu Abdurrahman Kholifatul Mukminin Sayidul Iman, and in the end of his life titled by Sunan Cinde Walang. The history of his authority and the following sultans will be described comprehensively in the Kingdom period.

2. The Kings of the Kingdom

The Kings of the Kingdom will be divided into two periods: Palembang Kingdom and Palembang Darussalam Sultanate periods.

a. Palembang Kingdom (1455- 1659 C.E.)
  • Ario Abdillah (Ario Dilla was well-known, before, as Ario Damar) (1455-1486 C.E.)
  • Pangeran Sedo Ing Lautan (1547-1552 C.E.)
  • Kiai Gede Ing Suro Tuo (1552-1573 C.E.)
  • Kiai Gede Ing Suro Mudo (Kiai Mas Anom Adipati Ing Suro) (1573-1590 C.E.)
  • Kiai Mas Adipati (1590-1595 C.E.)
  • Pangeran Madi Ing Angsoko (1595-1629 C.E.)
  • Pangeran Madi Alit (1629-1630 C.E.)
  • Pangeran Sedo Ing Puro (1630-1639 C.E.)
  • Pangeran Sedo Ing Kenayan (1639-1650 C.E.)
  • Pangeran Sedo Ing Pesarean (1651-1652 C.E.)
  • Pangeran Sedo Ing Rajek (1652-1659 C.E.)

b. Palembang Darussalam Sultanate (1659-1823 C.E. and 2006 C.E. -…)
  • Sultan Ratu Abdurrahman Khalifatul Mukminin Sayidul Imam (1659-1706 C.E.)
  • Sultan Muhammad Mansyur Jayo Ing Lago (1706-1714 C.E.)
  • Sultan Agung Komaruddin Sri Teruno (1714-1724 C.E.)
  • Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin Jayo Wikramo (1724-1758 C.E.)
  • Sultan Ahmad Najamuddin Adi Kesumo (1758-1776 C.E.)
  • Sultan Muhammad Bahaudin (1776-1804 C.E.)
  • Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II (1804-1821 C.E.)
  • Sultan Ahmad Najamuddin II atau Husin Dhiauddin (1813-1817 C.E.)
  • Sultan Ahmad Najamuddin III atau Pangeran Ratu (1819-1821 C.E.)
  • Sultan Ahmad Najamuddin IIV atau Prabu Anom (1821-1823 C.E.)
  • Sultan Iskandar Mahmud Badaruddin (2006 C.E.-...)

3. The Kingdom Period

The Sultanate of Palembang Darussalam had been established nearly for two centuries: from 1659 to 1825 C.E. Before the founding, the Palembang Kingdom was already established in the area. The differentiation between Palembang Kingdom and Palembang Darussalam Sultanate could be seen in their socio-religious practices. The Sultanate was adopted Islamic culture, applied Islamic jurisprudence, and accomplished al-Qur`an and al-Sunnah (propethic traditions) as the authority constitutions.

Sultan Ratu Abdurrahman Kholifatul Mukminin Sayidul Iman, who was recognized as Sunan Cinde Walang, was the first king of Palembang Darussalam Sultanate. He ruled the sultanate for 45 years. Under his long control, he laid foundation for strong socio-cultural, economic, and political life of the sultanate. In his governmental system, he laid the representative council system in the interior country (daerah pedalaman) that was known as raban and jenang. The laws and regulations were recorded on the charter (piagam), and every country under Palembang Sultanate territories such as Bangka, Belitung, Jambi (Muara Tembisi), Bengkulu (Kepahiang/Rejang), and Lampung (Tulang Bawang/Mesuji), had to run these rules.

Sunan Cinde Walang ever made international alliance among Palembang, Jambi, and Johor. The alliance was based on the situation and the incidental. Even though this alliance had often became conflict among them because of the different interests. In agricultural reform, he forced certain regions to plant black and white pepper. He also prepared irrigations that outstretched from Ogan, Komering, and Mesuji, for agricultural farm and defending system.

After the death of Sunan Cinde Walang in 1706 C.E., the throne then went to his son, Sultan Muhammad Mansyur Jayo Ing Lago (1706-1714 C.E.). He was renowned as handsome and brave king, and smart in organizing the weapons. Based on the written records, the Palembang Darussalam Sultanate ever lost one of its territory, Muara Tembesi in Jambi when Jayo Ing Lago had passed away. After his death, in this sultanate arouse political conflicts to decide who is the right man to be next sultanate. Pangeran Purbaya, who had to succeed Jayo Ing Lago, passed away, because he was poisoned by his opponents. The throne then went to Jayo Ing Lago`s brother, Sultan Agung Komaruddin Sri Teruno (1714-1724 C.E.). The sons of Jayo Ing Lago, Raden Lembu and Pangeran Mangkubumi Mohamad Ali, abandoned this enthronization and provoked the separatist movements.


Sultan Agung Komaruddin formulated peace for both of his nephews with the appointing of Pangeran Mangkubumi Mohamad Ali as Sultan Anom Muhamad Alimudin and Raden Lembu as Pangeran Jayo Wirakmo. But, this decision was not satisfied the both, because Pangeran Jayo Wikramo got more benefit with his marriage to the daughter of Sultan Agung Komaruddin. Finally, this situation aroused civil war, and Pangeran Jayo Wikramo became the winner of the war which brought him to get title as Mahmud Badaruddin Jayo Wikramo (1724-1758 C.E.).




Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin Jayo Wikramo (Badaruddin I) was a sultan who had deep insights and experiences. He laid foundation in reforming the sultanate, transforming science and technology, without forgetting the established traditions and the religious practices. He reformed and built the Palembang Sultanate to be more developed. Under his control, he built mosque (Masjid Agung), Kuta Batu (Kuta Lama), Makam Lemabang (Lemabang Grave), mine-tin-workings in Bangka, canals in the interior countries. He expanded commercial and economic systems of the Palembang Sultanate. Under his control, Islam rapidly extended in this area. Therefore, many ulama who was well-known in Nusantara mostly came from the Palembang Sultanate.

After the death of Sultan Badaruddin I, the throne then went to Sultan Ahmad Najamuddin (1758-1776 C.E.). There were no much written records discussing about the history of this sultan`s authority. However, he was focused on the expanding of Islamic teachings and literatures. After his death, the throne went to Sultan Muhammad Bahauddin (1776-1804 C.E.).

The period of Sultan Muhammad Bahauddin was also recognized as the zenith of the Palembang Darussalam Sultanante. Under his control, the sultanate economy grew rapidly because of his ability in trading, including with VOC. At the same time, VOC disappointed with the trading monopoly of Sultan Bahauddin which gave impacts to the rejecting of their commercial contracts. In fact, Sultan Bahauddin had preferred more to make trading with British, Chinese, and Malay people in Riau. The impacts of this policy brought to the prosperity and the revenue of the Palembang Sultanate. Therefore, since that time the welfare of the Palembang Darussalam Sultanate had rapidly increased.

The physical welfare of the sultanate could be traced back from the historical artifacts. In 1780 C.E., Sultan Bahauddin ever built the castle of Kuto Besak that could be said the biggest and the most beautiful castle in Nusantara. The developing arts and literatures, at the time, were also the evidence of the sultanate prosperity. During 1750 to 1800 C.E., the Palembang Darussalam Sultanate ever became the center of Malay literatures after the decline of Aceh Sultanate.

In 1804 C.E., Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II replaced his father (Sultan Bahauddin). The period of Sultan badaruddin II was known as the struggle era against Dutch and British colonialisms. In 1811 C.E., Sultan Badaruddin II had war against Dutch-France colonialism which was acknowledged as Peristiwa Loji Sungai Aur. In 1812 C.E., he confronted against British invasions. At the same time, he also battled in other wars such as Palembang war (Babak I) in 1819 C.E., and Palembang war (Babak II) in 1821 C.E. By his struggle against colonialism, he awarded as National`s hero.

Sultan Ahmad Najamudin II or Sunan Husin Dhiauddin was the next succeeding sultan (1813-1817 C.E.). He was the brother of Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II. Both of them were ruled the sultanate alternately, because Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II ever migrated to Muara Rawas, and during the years of 1813 to 1818 C.E., he had been fired by the Dutch and British colonialisms that controlled of the territories of the Palembang Sultanate. Even though his authority was discharged by colonialisms, but his position as legal sultan still existed until 1821 C.E.

The ninth sultan of the Palembang Darussalam Sultanate was Sultan Ahmad Najamuddin III and well-known as Pangeran Ratu (1919-1921 C.E.). He was the son of Sultan Badaruddin II that appointed as sultan in 1819 C.E. He ruled the sultanate until 1921 C.E. At the same time (1921 C.E.), his father (Sultan Badaruddin II) was captured by Dutch colonialism. He, together with his family, his followers, and ulamas, deported to Batavia and Ternate.

After Sultan Badaruddin II had evicted to Ternate, he automatically not became the ruler of the sultanate, and the throne went to Sultan Ahmad Najamuddin IV who renowned as Prabu Anom (1821-1823 C.E.). He was the son of Husin Dhiauddin (Sultan Najamuddin II). Under his rule, the Palembang Darussalam Sultanate was under the control of Dutch colony. In 1823 C.E., he awakened the rebellion toward Dutch colony which caused by the agreement between sultan and the Dutch government had inflicted the sultanate position. In this year, he was fired by Dutch colony to being sultan of Palembang Darussalam, and in 1925 C.E., he captured by Dutch and exiled in Manado. The Dutch government dispersed the Palembang Darussalam Sultanate in 1925 C.E.

The Dutch government, however, expected that the Palembang Darussalam Sultanate could be existed until the end of colonialism. Based on the confession of Sultan Badaruddin II descendants in Ternate, which was researched by Djohan Hanafiah, the Dutch colony ever offered Sultan Badaruddin II to come back to be sultan of Palembang Darussalam. But, Sultan Badaruddin II refused explicitly. The reason was to keep the disunity among them. He also noticed that the Palembang Darussalam Sultanate had better to be dispersed.

After long time the Palembang Darussalam Sultanate had not been existed, in 2006, one of the Palembang Darussalam Sultanate descendants, Sultan Iskandar Mahmud Badaruddin, was declared as the eleventh sultan since that year. He is descendant of Sultan Muhammad Mansyur Jayo Ing Lago and Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin Jayo Wikramo. According to www.sultanpalembang.com, the appointment of Sultan Iskandar Mahmud Badaruddin had been blessed by the expert of lineage the Palembang Darussalam Sultanate, R.M Yusuf Prabu Tenaya, who is offspring of Sultan Ahmad Najamuddin Pangeran Ratu bin Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II, and R.M. Syarifuddin Prabu Anom who is descendant of Sultan Ahmad Najamuddin Prabu Anom.

4. The Kingdom Territory

The authority of the Palembang Darussalam Sultanate covered what is now called as South Sumatra Province.

5. The Kingdom Structure

The Palembang Darussalam Sultanate was based on the traditional principles that attempted to keep the relationship between macrocosms and microcosms. This indicated that sultan was a man who had charisma and legitimate, a man who had self-power as gusti and kawula of his God`s revelation at the same time. The sultanate structure was based on the feudal system that sultan had an important role as leader, priyayi, mediator of the authority, and at the same time, he also became common people or servant of the sultanate.

The authority of sultanate was held by the sultan as the executive and the religious leader, who had responsible to God almighty. In ruling his daily jobs, the sultan was helped by three executive persons: first, Pangeran Penghulu Nataagama who had responsible in religious affairs and Islamic jurisprudence; second, Pangeran Natadirajo, was a helper of sultan in ruling the policies, laws, economy, and financial matter of the capital and mancanegaro. Pangeran Natadirajo was helped by Pangeran Citra as hulubalang who became the security of the sultanate; third, Syahbandar, was a helper of sultan who had accountable in commercial and foreign affairs such as imposing the tax and export duty for the sultanate and sultan, and keeping and ruling the laws of Malay maritime.

The sultanate was formed by the separation of district and law. The capital of the sultanate was a castle and mancanegaro (district outside the capital of the sultanate). The segregation of mancanegaro district was not based on the territorial consideration, but founded on utility and benefit of those districts. By this basis, some districts appeared as below:
Sindang was a territory that benefited as the border of the Palembang Sultanate to keep the people from foreign attack. In this area, the people were free from the tax payment or certain retribution.
Sikep was a village or clan which under the responsibility of priyayi that known as “jenang”. The authority was limited by the period of the position. As a common people, a farmer could open the land (sikep), even though he had to pay the tax of the land and the crop. However, the priyayi and the farmer had no right to inherit their position and their land.
The territory under the control of sultan was known as “pungutan”. In this area, the tax was not levied on the people but they had to do “siban” and “tukon” (the commodity that monopolized by sultan and would be sold to his people). That was a monopoly, because the price of commodity was higher than the normal price in the markets of the sultanate`s capital. The tax of tiban was the crop, and the tax of tukon was a cash money. In other words, these retributions were paid as the replacement of taxes for who settled this area.

In the period of the old Palembang Sultanate, the elite institution ever known as “Fexo” or Malay sultanate traders. The richness was the member criteria of this organization. The organization was usually a vice of sultan`s position such as a nobleman of the castle or a governor of the sultanate districts. Their position was regularly decided by the their ability. This organization was the financial sources of the sultan. Therefore, the member of fexo got special trusty and affection of the sultan.

6. The Socio-Cultural Life

The structure of the citizen of the Pelembang Darussalam Sultanate were detached into two categories:
Priyayi. This community were sultan`s descendants or noblemen. This position was usually based on the genealogy or the gift of the sultan.
Rakyat. This community was divided into two groups. First, the “miji” or in the interior country was known as “mata-gawe”, were a farmer and etc. This community consisted the citizen who dedicated themselves to sultan for war or making handicraft and arts. Every miji had the number of “alingan” (family), who held responsible to help the miji`s jobs. Second, the “senan” were common people who had lower caste than miji with their specific characteristics. This community was forbidden to work for the common people, but they allowed to work only for sultan, for instance, he made and repaired boats and houses of the sultan or bent to the oars for the sultan.

After declining of the Palembang Darussalam Sultanate, some of the sultanate heritages were lost by the passing time. For example, the characteristics of the Palembang city, long time ago, was very Islamic nuance, and now has disappeared. Besides that, this city had improved rapidly with the large number of the residents. As a result of the migration of the people those came from many districts of South Sumatra to look for the better life. At 27th of September 2005, Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudoyono, arranged the Palembang city to became water city tourism (kota wisata air) as well as Bangkok (Thailand) and Pnomh Phenh (Kamboja) water city tourisms.

(TN/trj/20/10-07)

References :
Djohan Hanafiah, “Kesultanan Pelambang Darussalam”, dalam Tim Penyusun, Petunjuk Kota Palembang, (Palembang: Humas Pemerintah Daerah Tingkat II Kotamadya Palembang, 1991).
Sriwijaya Post, 13 Juni 2002.
  • www.infokito.wordpress.com.
  • www.detik.com.
  • www.sultanpalembang.com.
  • www.wikipedia.org.


1 comments:

Taneak Jang Tanah Rejang Rejang Land ( Who am I? ) said...
December 06, 2008  
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Your Name: Alida Jenkins
Your Email Address: www.alidajenkins@hotmail.com
Subject: Kensultan Palembang Darusalan
Message: Hello,
Can anyone tell me more about KENSULTAN PALEMBANG DARUSALAM?
If you have documents on this subject, could I possibly have photo copies of it?
Please post them to:
Mrs Alida Jenkins
150 Wellington Flats
Ebury Bridge Road
London SW1W 8SA
England - UK
Many Thanks, Alida

Admin :

Dear Alida, this article be able to help you as first step to explorer about reference Sultan Palembang Darussalam.

If you have bit data about Rejang, please inform me.

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