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Satwa : Kucing Bulu Sumatra - Pardofelis marmorata marmorata, Martin, 1837


Satwa Taman Nasional Kerinci Seblat

Sebagai Taman Nasional terbesar di Sumatra, Taman Nasional Kerinci Seblat menjadi tempat persinggahan terkahir flora dan fauna langkah Sumatra. Salah satunya adalah Kucing Bulu, yang dalam bahasa latin di beri nama Pardofelis marmorata marmorata, Martin, 1837.

Berdasar sebaran, morfology dan pola bulunya, Kucing bulu di dunia terbagi 3 subspecies yaitu :
  1. Pardofelis marmorata marmorata, Martin, 1837, yang tersebar di daerah tropis asia tenggara yaitu Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, [dokumentasi oleh Osgood (1932) ditemukan juga Tonkin, Viet Nam].
  2. Pardofelis marmorata charltoni, Gray, 1946, yang tersebar di Nepal dan India
  3. Pardofelis marmorata ogilbii,  Hodgson, 1847, yang hanya di temui di Sikkim 1*)
1.1. Pardofelis marmorata marmorata, Martin, 1837
 Sinonim :
  1. diardii Jardine, 1834 (specimen borneo)
  2. longicaudata de Blainville, 1843(specimen jawa)
1.2. Tipe lokasi - Type Locality
Pada mulanya di sebut tipe jawa atau sumatra, namun akhirnya oleh Robinson and Kloss (1919a:261), dinyatakan bahwa mereka semua sama dan di sebut sebagai tipe lokal  "Sumatra". 2*)

Nama lain :

  • chat marbré (French) 
  • Marmorkatze (German) 
  • gato jaspeado (Spanish) 
  • marbel biral (Bengali: Bangladesh, India) 
  • shih mao, shihban mao, xiao yunbao [small clouded leopard] (Chinese) 
  • kucing batu (Indonesia) 
  • kucing dahan (Malaysia) 
  • kyaung tha lin (Myanmar) 
  • maew laey hin on (Thailand) 3*)

Klasifikasi :

Daerah Penyebaran :
Sumatra, Jawa, dan Borneo dan Semenanjung Malaysia.

Habitat :
Pada hutan tropis asia tenggara, dari dataran rendah dekat permukaan laut hingga ketinggian 3000 meter di atas permukaan laut. Termasuk area yang hutannya di tebang kemudian di tinggalkan selama 6 tahun. Daerah dengan perbukitan berbatu juga dapat di jumpai kucing ini.

Ciri-ciri fisik :
Meskipun totol totolnya tak begitu mirip dengan macan tutul banyak yang mengibaratkan penampilannya seperti macan tutul. Ukurannya hanya sebesar kucing rumah, tetapi ia lebih panjang dan lebih ramping.Kucing yang masih muda bulunya berbintik bintik coklat, dan pola bulu ini akan berubah setelah mereka terus tumbuh dewasa pada usia 4 bulan. Pola ini akan membentuk seperto pola marmer, oleh sebab itu di eropa kucing ini di sebut sebagai marble cat seperti yang tampak di photo.
Telinga pendek dan bulat dengan warna hitam sampai abu abu. Ada bercak putih di belakang masing masing telinga.Pada dagu dan bibir atas juga berwarna putih. Panjang ekor sekitar tiga perempat panjang badan dan ujung ekor berwarna hitam.
Kepala dan tubuh berkisar panjang 45-61 cm. Rata-rata ketinggian sampai bahu 28 cm dan panjang ekor 35 sampai 55 cm. Kucing marmer memiliki kaki yang relatif besar dengan bantalan tumit yang sangat besar. Mereka memiliki gigi taring besar jika dibandingkan dengan kucing jenis lain yang  sama ukurannya dengan mereka. Tengkorak tinggi dan bulat dan lebar di zygomata. Rongga mata dikelilingi oleh cincin tulang yang lengkap, tidak biasa di temui dikeluarga kucing. 4*)

Kucing ini memakan burung atau hewan mamalia yang lebih kecil di hutan.Bahkan juga memakan kadal, katak dan serangga.

grassman and neofelis

This rare image of a marbled cat, Pardofelis marmorata, was captured by a camera trap in Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Reserve, Sarawak, Malaysia, at 8:20 in the morning in September 2003. This project, led by Mohammed Azlan at the University of Sarawak, is using camera traps to assess the distribution and status of the Borneo Bay Cat and other wild cats of Borneo.

Marled cat- pardofelis marmorata
( FFI camera trap - photo courtesy )

Other names
French: chat marbré
German: Marmorkatze
Spanish:gato jaspeado

Superficially, the marbled cat looks like a smaller version of the clouded leopard. The ecology of the two species is very similar. Although both are closely related to the large or Panthera cats, the face of the marbled cat is more reminiscent of a small cat than is that of the clouded leopard. The tail of the smaller cat is far more bushy. One character which the marbled cat shares with the clouded leopard is very long canine teeth. Thick and soft, the fur of the marbled cat is brownish-yellow, covered in large blotches which are paler in their centres and margined with black. There are black spots on the limbs and some black lines on the head and neck. Interrupted bands run from the inner corner of each eye over the head. Cheek stripes mark the face. Dull black on the upper side, the tail is spotted and tipped with black. It is long, about three-quarters of the body length, a fact which appears to confirm the arboreal habits of this species. Long tails are used as a counterbalance when climbing. Black with grey median bars, the ears are short and rounded. The cat in the picture was photographed in the forest of Indonesia in 1991. This is thought to be the first photograph of a wild marbled cat not taken using an automatically triggered camera.

Unusually in the felids, the eye socket is surrounded by a complete bony ring. The pupils are ovoid, typical of the small, Felis cats. The marbled cat’s skull is broad, and like that of the cheetah, it is shorter and more rounded than in most of the other cats. The anterior upper premolar is absent or vestigial. Slightly larger than a domestic cat, the marbled cat is considered to be the Asian ecological equivalent of the margay. Quite different in overall appearance from other cats, the marbled cat has been separated into an unique genus by some authors. The validity of this status has been confirmed by studies of karyotype and blood serum albumin. Pending an acceptable taxonomy for the family as a whole, it is here retained in the genus Felis
Two subspecies are described: F. (P.) m. marmorata and F. (P.) m. charltoni

Principal dimensions

Head and Body lengths (cm)45-61

Height at shoulder (cm)28

Tail lengths (cm)35-55

Weight (Kg)2-6

Distribution and Habitats
Too little is known of the Marbled Cat for any reliable statements to be made about its habitat requirements. It has been found in tropical forests from Nepal through southeast Asia to Borneo and Sumatra, but its presence in parts of the area is known only from single observations. It is thought to spend a lot of its time in trees where it is difficult to see and it may be more widely distributed than is at present known. P. m. marmorata is the southern subspecies from Malaysia and Borneo. The map shows the presently known distribution of Marbled Cats in grey. The map is based on information in the Wild Cats Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan published by the IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group in 1996.

Birds form the greater part of the diet of the marbled cat, supplemented by frogs, lizards and rodents.

Mainly nocturnal, they mostly hunt in trees although it has been stated that in Borneo they may be rather more terrestrial and forage on the ground.

Conservation Status
Marbled cats are extremely vulnerable to the dramatic loss of tropical forest in southeast Asia. Population numbers are almost completely unknown, very few skins are on the market despite heavy hunting pressure. The conclusion of the Cat Specialist Group at a conference in Kanha National Park, India in 1984, was that the marbled cat was very rare.

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) classify it as Indeterminate, signifying that it is known to be seriously threatened, but not by how much (Conservation and Legal Status of Wild Cats. Cat News, 12, 1990, p. 26).

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) has listed the marbled cat in Appendix I, which prohibits all international commerce. These classifications are being updated; the IUCN Cat Specialist Group are reviewing the status of all the cats.

Reference :
1. http://www.planet-mammiferes.org/drupal/en/node/35?class=&go=&where_classif=4&ordre=4 
2. http://vertebrates.si.edu/msw/mswCFApp/msw/taxon_browser.cfm?msw_id=10814&CFID=9866087&CFTOKEN=24798721
3. http://lynx.uio.no/jon/lynx/marmor01.htm 
4. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pardofelis_marmorata.html

Credit photo :
1. Utama : www.iucnredlist.org/sotdfiles/pardofelis-marmorata.pdf


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