weblogUpdates.ping Taneak Jang, Rejang Land, Tanah Rejang http://rejang-lebong.blogspot.com Taneak Jang, Rejang land, Tanah Rejang: Buceros bicornis - Rangkong Papan - Hornbill

Buceros bicornis - Rangkong Papan - Hornbill


Many rare birds are present in Kerinci Seblat National Park. One of them is Buceros bicornis. This is the profile Buceros bicornis, taken from a few sources.


Great Indian Hornbill



Great Indian Hornbill
(Buceros bicornis)
French Calao bicorne
Distribution map Great Indian Hornbill

Distribution map

German Doppelhornvogel
Spanish Cálao bicorne
Local language Malay:Enggang papan
Range South-east Asia
Habitat In vast tropical rainforest with massive trees
Great Indian Hornbill
IUCN Red List Status 2006 Near threatened
CITES Status Appendix I
CMS Status Not listed
Wild population Unknown
Zoo population 128 reported to ISIS (2005)

Great Indian Hornbill
Facts about the Great Indian Hornbill

The male Great Indian hornbill has a total length (from tip of the bill to the tip of the tail) of about 130 cm, the female is slightly smaller. It has a black face, chin, back and lower breast, the back with a metallic gloss. The crown, neck, upper breast, lower abdomen, thighs, upper- and under-tail coverts are white. The wings are black with white tips to the greater and median coverts forming a white band across the wing, and white tips to the primaries and secondaries, forming a white terminal band. The is white with a broad black subterminal band. The white is often stained yellow with preen-gland oil.

The bill and the "horn" (casque) is yellow at the base, becoming orange to red towards the tip. There is no sexual dimorphism in the plumage but in the female, the iris of the eye is white, while the skin surrounding the eye is pink to red. In males, the iris is red, with black skin surrounding the eye.

Reproduction patterns in hornbills are complex and unique. The pairs will perform a courtship ritual that may include preening, feeding, wing and tail displays, and even beating their bills on the ground. Then they will spend several days choosing just the right tree hollow to line with leaves, grass, and feathers. The female will then seal therself up in the tree hollow for up to four months while raising her chicks, using regurgitated food, droppings, and mud brought to her by the male to seal the opening of the tree hollow until only a small slit remains. This creates an almost predator-proof nest.

The female will lay her eggs and sit on them while the male flies back and forth bringing her whole or regurgitated food, which he feeds to her through the slit. The female keeps the nest clean by dropping all waste outside through the small opening.

Great Indian hornbills are omnivorous and eat a combination of fruit, insects, and other small animals. The birds can use the tip of their bills as fingers to pluck fruit from trees or animals off of the ground. The edges of the bills are notched like a saw for grasping and tearing.

Great Indian Hornbill
Why do zoos keep the Great Indian Hornbill

The future of the great Indian hornbill does not look bright because of habitat loss and degradation due to logging. With a view of building up a self-sustaining population, an International Studbook has been established under the WAZA umbrella, and coordinated conservation breeding programmes are operated at the regional level by AZA, EAZA and JAZA.

Indian hornbills are large and very attractive birds displaying interesting behaviour patterns they are therefore a very valuable species for educational purposes as well as ambassadors fo their endangered habitat the ropical rain forest.

Great Indian Hornbill
How the Great Indian Hornbill should be kept

Great Indian hornbills should be kept in pairs. Minimum requirement is an aviary with a surface of 20 m² and a height of 3 m, perches of adequate size, a bathing opportunity, and a hollow tree for nesting. In cold and temperate climatic zones and addiitonal indoor enclosure of at least 8 m² and a height of 2.5 m is necessary.

The diet should be based on fruit. In addition, animal protein in form of one-day old chicks, mice, or meat strips, must be offered.

Great Indian Hornbill
How the Great Indian Hornbill should be transported

For air transport, Container Note 13 of the IATA Live Animals Regulations should be followed.

Fact sheet compiled by
Silvia Geser and Peter Dollinger, WAZA Executive Office

CITES IDM fact sheet
Del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. eds. (2001) Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 6. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona
Photographs by courtesy of
(1) Peter Dollinger, taken at Villa Pallavicino, Stresa (Italy)
(2) PD, taken at Bronx Zoo (USA)
(3) PD, taken at Zoo Negara (Malaysia)
(4) PD, taken at ChiangMai Zoo (Thailand)
(5) Peter Linhart, Tiergarten Schönbrunn, Vienna (Austria)
Reference :


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